Today in class I learned about glycolsis. The simple explanation of glycolsis is that is the body’s way of breaking down of glucose molecules into essentially 2 pyruvate molecules. Glycosis takes place in the cytoplasm like most metabolic reactions that occur within the cell. It is apart of the anerobic (none oxygen requiring) cellular respiration process of the cell.
The glucose molecule involved in glycolsis has a chemical composition of C6H12O6. The process of glycosis is done in 10 steps that use 2 ATP but the outcome of glycosis is 4 ATPs, 2 NADHs and 2 pyruvate molecules/ and of course glucose, 2 ATP. Gylcolsis occurs in 10 steps so that the process is very well regulated within the cell because large amounts of energy are consumed as well as released. If the process was not regulated and broken down the amount of energy that could be released will be so great that all the proteins that make up a person could denature or unfolded and be rendered nonfunctional and the end result would the death of the cells and the organisms. It also done in 10 steps so that the necessary precurors to the next reactions are formed and the process can continue.
Glycosis is as follow:
The first 5 steps requires the use of energy or ATP..
1. Hexokinase enzyme adds a phosphate molecule to the 6-carbon in the glucose molecule to destablized the molecule.
2. Phosphoglucoisomerase converts the glucose 6-phosphate into its isomer fructose 6-phosphate by rearranging the molecules.
3. Phosphofructokinase uses another ATP molecule to transfer a phosphate group to fructose 6-phosphate to form the molecule fructose 1, 6-diphosphate.
4. Aldolase splits the fructose 1, 6-diphosphate molecule into two different sugars.
5. Triose phosphate isomerase converts the molecules dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate and the glyceraldehyde is used in the remaining glycosis process.
6. Triose phosphate dehydrogenase transfers a hydrogen from the glyceraldehyde phosphate NAD+ to form NADH
7. Phosphoglycerokinase transfers a phosphate groups to a molecule of ADP to form ATP.
8. Phosphoglyceromutase moves the phosphate group from the from the third carbon to the second carbon.
9. Enolase removes a molecule of water from 2-phosphoglyceric acid.
10. Pyruvate kinase transfers a phosphate form pyruvic acid and ATP.